September 30, 2011
what is the latest development in Physics? The Latest. No one has possibly told you of this. Except in essence this is what is bogging the top minds around the world.
I start here:
A cone. A cone is a stack of circles. From below zero to a possible infinite. Each circle has their radii hence a unique circumference. All masses and massless particles (actually all energy hence no problem) at rest reside the “exact” same circle. A man of 140 Kgs and a car of 1400 Kgs when they are not moving (quasi rest even in a macroscopic scale) reside on the same circle. That is because irrespective of their masses they have the same kinetic energy F.O.R., they do not have the same total energy, nor the same rest-energy, their masses being different, they are on the same circle of kinetic energy (should I say kinetic energy scale !!). Now the man goes into the car and the car moves at 100 kms/hour, they are still on the same circle although this time a much bigger circle than the circle they sat on when they were at rest, because they have a bigger kinetic energy. The man can sit in the car and the car moves at a speed, they both enjoy the same speed hence all observers in the car have the same relativistic view of the world.
Now take the “massless” photon. It is almost moving at the same speed always (but not necesarily in a quantum mechanical view where the speed has an uncertainty inversely proportional to the uncertainty of time, **a new form of uncertainty, check for it’s consistency**)
Can anyone as big as a car sit on a photon and move at the same speed to view the same relativistic world. NO. Because of the scale of the photon and the obeject being so different, while one will move unobstructed the other will crash against things of similar scale. The photon is not unobstructed in a dense medium hence it crashes at a circle much smaller than it would be if it were to be moving unobstructed in vacuum.
Naturally photon is not special everywhere.
In vacuum it was arbitrarily thought (like the concept of aether) that the photon is special in vacuum hence it goes to the circle on the relativistic cone which has the highest diameter.
But nobody was thinking about an object which does not have the same scale problem as that of massive objects like a car or a tenis ball.
Hell ya, this object didn’t even have the same problems of obstruction in a dense media as that of the photon. SO there was something to learn here. It’s called relativity of relativity.
Whether the photon sits on the neutrino or the neutrino sits on the photon is a matter of where they lay their eggs on the cone of circles. Can the diameter of a circle of a neutrino be bigger than the diameter of the circle of the photon?
Turns out that the circle of the neutrino can be bigger than the circle of the photon!! It is not a result of quantum mechanics. Rather quantum mechanics clears the path for neutrinos to be on a bigger circle than the photon.
It is the kinetic energy *factor* (you may recognize this as speed) of the neutrino which turns out to be larger than the kinetic energy *factor* of the photon despite of the fact that the mass of the photon is at-least 2 x 10^ -7 times smaller than the mass of the neutrino. The total energy of the neutrino was such that it already took care of the tiny mass of 2 eV of the neutrino to give it enough kinetic energy factor which is still larger than the kinetic energy factor of the photon, the latter being as lighter as 2 x 10^-7 as that of the neutrino. This energy is at-most as small as ~10 MeV, the more the merrier.
That is at-least with ~10 MeV energy the neutrino is slightly more capable than the photon to sit on a circle bigger than the largest circle photon has ever sat on. Raise the energy and the neutrino just jumps merrily into bigger and bigger circles of ecstacy.
From a slightly bigger circle to a much larger circle the neutrinos have been observed to be traversing on the cone …
This is not a blow to the theory of Relativity and the kind of changes the neutrino is allowed to observe from where it is sitting. It is just a blow to few adhoc and arbitrary (as arbitrary as an aether which Einstein theory itself broke) hypothesis which the theory is still carrying to this day. Experiments suggest very emphatically that these adhoc schemes are a mere stopgap that have survived for quite long and it is time that we see they need to be discarded. The advantages:
1. Quantum Gravity !! plenty of hints, because now even relativistic quantum mechanics will be more consistent, for the first time, once that has been achieved and chronology notwithstanding a better understanding towards quantum gravity is on the anvil, since gravity theory will also include these tiny and remarkable effects, at-least at the scale achieved in modern Physics of the last few decades this effect is not tiny. It is tiny in the smallest scales of distance **Planck distance: 10^-43 meters** and the largest scale of energy **Planck scale of energy: ~10^18 GeV**. But it has entered the cupboard of the practical physicists. The scale of mass in the microgram region is connected by calculations to these tiny distance and collosal energy. The idea in my mind is; the scale at which any mass-object has violated the precincts of Relativity is far far smaller than the microgram **2 eV is far smaller than a microgram, convert microgram into eV**. This says that only something as energetic as a 10^18 GeV object will move a mass of a microgram to surpass the photon speed emphatically, but such an object can only be observed given we have a sensitivity to the 10^-43 meters distance. For now the distance order involved can be calculated (homework) Note that the cosmic energy giants (UHECR) have an energy 10^-8 smaller than the energy that will move micrograms beyond a photon’s speed.
2. We don’t need more advantages.
Disadvantage: who will work out all the needed calculations (and any inconsistenices that are entailed in such a scenario?) We don’t even calculate basic physics that we know are valid always. The idea is it is feeling like humoungous but it is not. There is a large scale paranoia in the theory world which even clearly circumventing the same basic physics they use for their arguments. Self-falsification.