###### wiki**pe**dia: “v > c is possible for cosmological redshifts because the space which separates the objects (for example, a quasar from the Earth) can expand faster than the speed of light “

last night I hit upon accidentally on an article that had in 2009 exposited on something exactly in my line of thinking which I have been occupied with only in the last week. The Pioneer anomaly is something I haven’t studied yet, in detail except my Flyby anomaly analysis results tell me The Schwarzschild radius is a physical parameter, contrary to Weinberg’s exposition on this where he tells us it’s a moral lesson anyway and it changes with coordinate system transformations while that is correct my insight is new … it explains the flyby speed increament as a ratio of the Schwarzschild radius “S-radii” and the separation from source of mass. It therefore drops rapidly as an inverse {or higher power radial?}. (the speed increament).

SO that is the physical meaning of S-radii, if it’s an actual radius like a black-hole this means the speed increament or speed fallout or “speed error” permitted by theory is vast. But for actual radius being far larger than S-radii we happily roam around on the surface. When this surface eg in the case of a satellite escaping, the separation is even much larger than actual surface radius the speed increamemt decreases maintaining a ratio with the S-radii. That is therefore physical. It’s an edge in the spacetime which even the light can not escape and how much it can not escape is given by how close light is placed to the S-radii from the source of potential, eg black-hole.

Extending this to the Pioneer anomaly last night I calculated that the Pioneer-10/11 escape the Sun-potential with a speed fallout to the order of 622 kms/year, or depending on how you factor in the speed this can be half that value as well, 311 kms/yr. This is “exactly” what they observe in case of Pioneer, ~400 km/year fallout. So Schwarzschild solution of theory of relativity indeed explains Pioneer anomaly. It’s basics and how did it even escaped for decades? It happens when you ignore basic ideas which can be doen back of the mail and jump onto complicated ideas first.

The article I mentioned above {link below} I hit accidentally also did the same conclusion, in 2009. It brought in escape velocity as the observed fallout speed and the Hubble recession. Hubble recession gives an additional speed to objects placed at that radial point because space is expanding, hence a minus sign from the fallout speed. Fallout is what you call Pioneer or flyby anomaly, a puzzling speed increament. I make an additional note enlightened by Weinberg: the Hubble constant here is actually in the order of the angular velocity of the receding object coming from the potential which it is trying to escape.

{Check his beautiful beuatiful text of Weinberg, my money has turned worth of spending on this text, angular velocity in orders of negligible 2nd orders which is what it is when you are far far away from source of potential, is a power of 3/2 of inverse radial separation. v=wr, velocitysquared is thus “one” inverse radial separation, velocity squared is what is in order of potential and order of time dilation/contraction. SO the actual potential, the angular motion of Sun hence the receding Pioneer and Hubble adjustment are perhaps enough, at-least fittingly, to explain the pioneer anomaly. The Schwarzschild has already explained the Flyby although that is not how I proceeded to explain this, it turned out that it had such a simpler explanation, basic Relativity theory. Needless to say as I have mentioned elsewhere it all came to my notice because I was studying the OPERA anomaly in terms of gravitational effect on the GPS satelites and I was solving for it’s trajectory. You can expect me to publish all these results soon, but I am bounded by my own resurces. }

SO you hear people telling you the pioneer anomaly acceleration matching a -cH, note that this is same as -cw, w=angular recession speed as I just explained above, which is to be subtracted from the fallout speed. So without a Hubble constant expansion my Flyby analysis is exactly same as Pioneer anomaly and as I had noted in another article perhaps the radars are placed on earth for both cases, a difference that should not bother you, it just gives you an angular deflection because you are perhaps “equally” away from the Pioneer as the Sun, the pioneer is a real pioneer it has escaped the solar system which is at-least 1 AU. And I did another 1 AU calculation yesterday which gives why the Solar orbit motion of the GPS-satelite and earth together means it is the differential effect of this motion which goes towards a 10^-16 order and not a cause to worry regarding the OPERA anomaly.

Just the basic celestial mechanics explains these anomaly for almost all parts of the effect. {and in case of OPERA that the anomaly is not coming from Gravity} One more note: like the Hubble expansion correlation in case of Pioneer, in case of flyby, Anderson had given a 2wR * (deflection_initial – deflection_final). That’s nothing but the total angular deflection I had given from basic considerations, recently {I gave for photons, incase of satellite one needs to factor in the small velocity of satellite into the trajectory, photons travel at c=1}. SO in both cases basic Physics explains the anomaly and incase of OPERA we have to look elsewhere.

{{Note: One of the strongest candidates that need to be studied is the “Optical” nuclear potentials aaffecting the neutrino’s motion along the baseline, just incase. Although the neutrino’s excess sounds to be too much to digest, if true, astounding Physics is knocking at the door, if not we have real time lesson, how to do science. Not that we have not had these kind of lessons plenty of times in the history of scientific investigations but they are not popularized. What is popularized more is warped dimension and multiverse. Just in itself it is not a bad idea, the later. But our efforts should span in a comprehensive way so that we make actual progress in the education of science.}}

From Anderson’s flyby formula, empirical they called it but it was basic physics, because thats exactly what the Relativity theory predicts for trajectories of particles in cosmos. This should have been clear as soon as these two correlations were known or as soon as you notice that flyby is millimeter range and Earth S-radii is millimeter range. {This was not due to Anderson, but it was never noticed, you can duely due this to me}

For Pioneer one could immediately see that Sun’s surface potential is 1000 times stronger than earth’s hence the 3 km S-radii of Sun drops to millimeter again, as observed for Pioneer, towards 1 AU, a few millimeter per second, 400 kms/year.

One more note, in case of Flyby our radar is placed on earth but in case of Pioneer our radars are not placed on Sun but on earth, all that matters is slightly adjusting your coordinate systems origin. The 622 kms/year I gave is for 1 AU separation from Sun, so this will go further and further down as Pioneers recede completely out of Solar system range, very good names though, Pioneer. Send Jim on one of these satellites. He once claimed to me he is a pioneer while driving me in his car and took his hands off the wheel for a couple sec, I said that’s fine but first restore your driving control.Click on me to read Steven Sesselmann’s musings about Pioneer anomaly, note of caution he is playing his mind around fictitious theories like where he thinks force is needed to be disregarded but not potential, such things have no meaning and you need not give him more peanuts than he is asking, argue with him